Saturday, July 21, 2012

Activity Eight: Exploration of Chemistry


Intro to Isotopes PhET Lab

by Chris Bires


Introduction: Breath in…Breath out.  Again!  When you inhale air, you are not just inhaling a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and trace gasses, but a mixture of different oxygen atoms and different nitrogen atoms.  It turns out that all oxygen atoms have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of neutrons.  These different-but-still-oxygen atoms are called isotopes.  Some atoms have just two isotopes; some have dozens!
Some handy vocabulary for you to define:
Proton: A stable subatomic particle occurring in all atom's nucleus. Have a positive electric charge.
Neutron: A subatomic particle with no electric charge. Present in all atom's nucleus and has about the same mass as a proton.
Isotope: An element that contains a different number of protons then neutrons. 
Atomic Mass: Is about equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons.
Radioactive: Emitting or relating to the emiision of ionizing radiation or particles. 
Natural Abundance: the abundance isotopes of a chemical element naturally found on a planet.

Procedure: PhETàPlay with the Sims à Chemistry à Isotopes and Atomic Mass
·         Take some time and play with the simulation.  Imagine you are manipulating atoms!  EXCITING!
·         Be sure to activate  and

1.       How do the number of protons change as atomic number increase by one? 
        As the atomic number goes up by one, the number of protons goes up by one.
2.       How does the mass of the atoms change as atomic number increases by one? 
        As the mass of the atom goes up, the atomic number is also increasing. 
3.       What effect does adding a neutron have on the atom’s identity
         When you add 1 neutron to the atom, the mass number, atomic mass (amu), and the symbol number also go up. The atom also becomes unstable. 
4.       What effect does adding a neutron have on the atom’s mass
        When you add 1 neutron, the mass number disappears. For example, in Helium the mass starts at 4.00260 and after you add 1 neutron, the mass goes to "---" 
5.       Draw the nucleus of the most abundant isotope of each of the following atoms in the boxes below.  Be sure to count and label the protons and neutrons.
6.       Also show the full atomic symbol.  Hydrogen has been done for you. 
Hydrogen: H               Carbon: C                    Oxygen: O                      Neon: Ne

Complete the chart below.  In some cases, you will need to work backwards to fill out missing information.
Isotope Name
Atomic Number
# of Protons
# of Neutrons
Mass Number
Stable?
(Y/N)
Ratio of neutrons to protons
Hydrogen-2
1
 1
1
 2
Yes
1-1
Helium-3
2
2
1
3
yes
1-2
Helium- 5    
2
 2
3
5
 no
3-2
Lithium-6
 3
3
3
6
yes
1-1
Lithium - 7
3
3
4
7
no
 4-3
Oxygen-16
8
8
8
16
yes
1-1
Oxygen-17
 8
8
9
17
yes
9-8
 Oxygen-18
8
8
10
18
yes
5-4
 Neon-20
10
10
 10
20
yes
1-1
Neon-23
10
10
13
23
no
 13-10
Analysis Questions              You may need to use the internet to define some terms.
1.       Water is H2O.  How many isotopes of hydrogen exist in nature?  (even unstable ones) _____7_____
2.       Use the internet to search for “heavy water.”  What is this stuff? 
         It used to be called deuterium oxide or 2h20. It's a form of water that uses hydrogen isotope deuterium instead of the ordinary protium.
3.       How does it behave, compared to ordinary water? 
        Heavy water boils at a little bit lower temperature then ordinary water. Heavy water is also 11% more dense then normal water. 
4.       Does heavy water’s ice float or sink in ordinary water? Why? 
         No, because heavy water is more dense then original water, therefore it will sink. 
5.       Observe the atoms you determined to be unstable.  What can you conclude about the ratio of neutrons to protons and a nucleus’ stability? 
        The ratio of neutrons to protons in an unstable atom, was that the neutrons outnumbered the protons, so the ratio was high to low.
6.       What makes Carbon-14  so useful in “carbon dating” or “radio dating”?'
        Carbon-14 helps show how old something is. Scientists use it to tell how old a fossil or event he earth is. A neutron decays and turns into a proton and electron .
7.       Could a stable isotope of carbon be used in the same way?  Why or why not? 
          No, because the neutron wouldn't decay and leave the extra energy for the proton and neutron.


Molecule Madness

Intended for Fourth Graders
by Taylor Molitor 


To complete this activity, please go to http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-a-molecule  and click the Run Now button, to start the simulation.

Part 1: Make Molecules
For the first part, you are going to be using different "kits" (located at the bottom of the simulation) to create the molecules in your collection that are shown on the sidebar to the right. Answer the following questions as you work along with the simulation. Before we start making molecules, let's refresh ourselves on the elements we will be using.


Element
# of Protons
# of Electrons
# of Neutrons
Charge of Atom
Hydrogen




Oxygen




Nitrogen




Carbon





Collection 1:
1. What two elements is Water made of? __________________
2. How many of each element makes up water? ________________________
3. Draw what a water molecule looks like:


4. What two elements is Oxygen made of? __________________
5. How many of each element makes up oxygen? ________________________
6. Draw what a oxygen molecule looks like:



7. What two elements is Hydrogen made of? __________________
8. How many of each element makes up hydrogen? ________________________
9. Draw what a hydrogen molecule looks like:



10. What two elements is Carbon Dioxide made of? __________________
11. How many of each element makes up carbon dioxide? ________________________
12. Draw what a carbon dioxide molecule looks like:



13. What two elements is Nitrogen made of? __________________
14. How many of each element makes up nitrogen? ________________________
15. Draw what a nitrogen molecule looks like:



Part 2: Larger Molecules
For the second part, click on the Larger Molecules tab at the top of the screen. This section is kind of like the first section, but instead you get to build your own molecules. In this section, you are to create molecules of at least three different elements and you can not use ones you already made. You must make one from each kit. Look at my example, if you get stuck.  First let's review the elements we haven't covered yet.

 
Element
# of Protons
# of Electrons
# of Neutrons
Charge of Atom
Chlorine




Fluorine




Boron




Silicon




Sulphur




Phosphorus




Bromine





Example:

1. What molecule did you make? _____Water_______
2. What elements make up this molecule? ____2 Hydrogen and 1 oxygen____
3. Draw your molecule.

      

 Kit 1:
1. What molecule did you make? ________________
2. What elements make up this molecule? ____________________
3. Draw your molecule.



 Kit 2:
1. What molecule did you make? ________________
2. What elements make up this molecule? ____________________
3. Draw your molecule.



 Kit 3:
1. What molecule did you make? ________________
2. What elements make up this molecule? ____________________
3. Draw your molecule.



 Kit 4:
1. What molecule did you make? ________________
2. What elements make up this molecule? ____________________
3. Draw your molecule.



 Kit 5:
1. What molecule did you make? ________________
2. What elements make up this molecule? ____________________
3. Draw your molecule.


  
Kit 6:
1. What molecule did you make? ________________
2. What elements make up this molecule? ____________________
3. Draw your molecule.



 Kit 7:
1. What molecule did you make? ________________
2. What elements make up this molecule? ____________________
3. Draw your molecule.





This lesson will meet the following standards:

B.4.1 Use encyclopedias, source books, texts, computers, teachers, parents, other adults, journals, popular press, and various other sources, to help answer science-related questions and plan investigations
        Students will be using PhET simulation to answer questions about molecules and to build 3D molecules.

C.4.6 Communicate the results of their investigations in ways their audiences will understand by using charts, graphs, drawings, written descriptions, and various other means, to display their answers
        Students will be taking what they learn and put their answers into graphs or writing down what they are seeing.

D.4.1 Understand that objects are made of more than one substance, by observing, describing and measuring the properties of earth materials, including properties of size, weight, shape, color, temperature, and the ability to react with other substances
         Students will be combining different elements together to create molecules, such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. 






6 comments:

  1. 3d bioprinting = Immortality = go to stars

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  2. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (Sun-Deneb: 1000g)... Earth...the 2 ships that will go formation flying for mutual assisting if there are problems...indestructible structures made of Hexapentas material, awaiting in airport the arrival of passengers... Day 1: zero-speed... THE SHIPS TAKEOFF►... navigation computer places on screen the spacecraft in the center of sphere...spherical\tridimensional\spatial Heading: Deneb... Antimatter rocket engines...ON... Here we go...goooooo!...1g...10g...100g...constant acceleration cruise: 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)... Inside the living areas (the same as going submerged in water: constant acceleration downwards...less...constant thrust, constant acceleration, from water upwards)...the gravitational transformers, perfectly synchronized with the acceleration, running: 1000g constant acceleration toward the floor ↓↓(motors)↓↓...less...999g constant acceleration toward the ceiling ↑↑(gravitational transformers)↑ = 1g constant acceleration toward the floor↓... 8.5 hours: light-speed = 1c...the fusion reactor as an artificial sun illuminating the immense Vital Support Gardens to lowering, from their comfortable apartments, cheerful passage to the pool...the electromagnetic shield anti-radiation...antigravity fields generator run forward, working: light objects away from the path of the ship...and trajectory ship away from the heavy object...superluminal-speed > 1c... 42.5 hours: reaches hyperluminal-speed = 5c... Day 508: Half Journey...1000 light years...high hyperluminal-speed = 1435.39c... OFF engines...a few minutes of weightlessness during maneuver...the ship rotates 180º around its axis...motors ON again and... ◄STARTS TO BRAKE... Day 1017 (2.79 years): End Path party...2000 light years...zero-speed... The forever young passage of the 1st Immortal Generation (3D Bioprinting...Telomerase...modified Biological Timers...) disembarks at destination: an extra-stellar planet which came errant to orbit of Deneb giant.

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  3. (4)...interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)... What is a Force?... Gravity...two objects attract between them emitting gravitons, how two pirate-ships hooked by ropes with hooks from the other... Each emitted graviton perhaps would go invisibly united to its emitter object, such as if would go an elastic cord with infinite length and when arrives till the other object, by far that it is, "knows" toward where has that "pulling"...never are confused the gravitons emitted by different sources "pulling" toward do not is... The gravitons that come from Andromeda they "pull" toward Andromeda, and do not toward the Magellanic Clouds... That graviton comes climbing toward the steel object which falls from a tower...when arrives to the object, what finds?...sighted from its perspective finds which the object in reality does not exist...only "sees" a vacuum, here a nucleus of protons and neutrons...far over there some electrons in orbit...((the distance between Earth and Moon is enormously major than the diameters Earth + Moon; the distance between an atomic nucleus and its orbital electrons is enormously major than the diameters of all their subatomic particles added))... Where "hooking for pulling" from this object which does not exist?, asks itself...also asks itself from where comes, how went emitted because over there also only was vacuum and some subatomic particles here and there... Ah, I know..."will hook" in the magnetic force lines which go away for this huge vacuum joining the nuclei of protons (+) with their far electrons (-), in these force lines made with Photons emitted from those nuclei and electrons...but, they are lines of electromagnetic force and I am a graviton... Ah, from there comes a graviton of here, from where comes?, perhaps from interior of some Proton where the gluons, what an adhesive!...indestructibly join quarks to form it...and goes to the place from where I come for make the same, "hooking for pulling". So that perhaps...Graviton hooks in Proton that seems strong... The Gravitational Force how solution...someday all spacecrafts always will go to thousands G of constant acceleration... The Universe is just there for us... What is a Force?...who emits it?...where it "hooks"?...

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  4. (4b)...interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)... The entire Universe gyrating. The "phantom position"... LMC galaxy moves around the Milky Way... When it is in an orbital point emits its gravitons toward here...when it is to quite a few degrees from point before those emitted gravitons do not can "pulling" toward the already "phantom position" where LMC is not placed now, so that the Gravitons must have a quality of trajectories reorganization it depends moving of the object, the new emitted would go away auto-correcting the trajectories of the gravitons before for the attraction always being toward the actual position... Andromeda and Milky Way... The Photons it transit by the "phantom position" because we see Andromeda not only how it was 2 million years ago, but also "where it was" at that time. At different way those emitted Gravitons in each place then must go away course actualizing among them... Matter/Antimatter annihilation rockets... to 9800 kms/sec²... Day 508: Half Journey...1 million light years...high hyperluminal-speed = 0.0455 light years/sec... In 2.79 years, here is Andromeda... spherical\tridimensional\spatial Heading...intergalactic navigation in Starships to thousands G of constant acceleration...

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  5. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (times to reach light-speed)... 1g (9.8 mts/sec²)=354 days ...↓... 0.5g (4.9 mts/sec²)=1.94 years ...↓... 0.25g (2.45 mts/sec²)=3.88 years ...↓... 0.1g (98 cms/sec²)=9.7 years ...↓... 0.01g (9.8 cms/sec²)=97 years ...↓... 0.001g (9.8 mms/sec²)=970 years ______ Huge constant acceleration the ship, living areas to 1g: inside the living areas..."the same as going submerged in water"...↓↓↓↓g (motors)...less...↑↑↑g (gravitational transformers)=↓g... ...↨... 2g (19.6 mts/sec²)=177 days ...↨... 10g (98 mts/sec²)=35.4 days ...↨... 100g (980 mts/sec²)=3.54 days ..↨... 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)=8.5 hours ...↨... 10000g (98 kms/sec²)=51 minutes ...↨... 50000g (490 kms/sec²)=10.2 minutes ...↨... 100000g (980 kms/sec²)=5.1 minutes ...↨... 1 million G (9800 kms/sec²)=30.6 seconds... ((typewrite: interstellar travel constant acceleration))

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  6. ...space-elevator (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... geostationary orbit, a huge "bike-wheel" is gyrating around its own axis for have 1g-centrifugal. Wheel held in place with 4 CABLES (each cable with a track for Train, for both trains crossing ) FORMING THE STRUCTURE OF A RHOMBUS (minor diagonal of rhombus is the gyration-axis of the Station-Wheel)...rhombus´s below, the carbon nanotubes Track towards Earth...rhombus´s above, the Cable towards a higher counterweight... if...WHEEL´s RADIUS = 250 mts... Wheel gyration´s Axis length = rhombus´s minor diagonal = ½ Wheel´s radius = 125 mts (axis could be a resistant hollow tube with for example 20 mts in diameter with an adequate wall´s thickness, hollow which could serving how tank of anything, e.g. air, or tank of frozen water storage no totally full, for volume expansion from liquid to ice without tank, Axis, breaking, thawing using solar-heat)... Cable´s length of the rhombus´s side = Wheel diameter = 500 mts ((also how Wheel´s supporting, instead of a rhombus, can be a narrow Rectangular structure ▄▄▄▄▄▄ of rigid girder with dimension sides slightly majors than Wheel´s diameter and wide, e.g. Wheel´s diameter 500 mts and wide 50 mts...rectangle´s sides: 510 mts length, 60 mts wide. Rectangle with a cable/track (length=Wheel´s diameter) in each vertex, forming a long isosceles triangle at both rectangle´s minor sides)). Wheel´s ZONE-1g: habitable length = 1571 mts*50 mts wide (separation at both sides between Cable and Circumference of the gyratory Wheel, approx.= 5 mts, adjusting this separation installing an Axis with major or minor length, as much as shorter Axis...stronger and, for easy train´s passing, an angle nearer to 180º value in both rhombus´s-vertex, minor diagonal, where are the Big Soundless- Bearings of Axis´s-insertion...a few Electrical Motors fed with Solar-Energy maintain automatically the gyration-speed counteracting the slow braking by friction from the Bearings...besides of Bearings: main Maglev system also for the gyration and Axis´s supporting, leaving the Bearings only how secondary security system...with a slight roominess between each Bearing and its exterior subjection, into the roominess all around...little solid Pistons radial extensible and retractable... Axis´s subjection: extensible ON, with Bearings; extensible OFF, with Maglev. With a sufficient cables tension coming from the counterweight, if Axis resists: the rhombus structure is undeformable)*10 Floors with 25 mts in height each one, gyrating 360º each 31 seconds, angular-speed = 11.61º/sec, linear-speed (tangential) = 182 kms/h... Station-Wheel´s GYRATION: AXIS IN PERPENDICULAR (90º) ORIENTATION TO THE ORBITAL TRAJECTORY...and so, while Station-Wheel follows its geostationary orbit, the Wheel does Not change the spatial-orientation of its axis, and thus there are Not Precession forces actuating (and thus there is Not torsion´s force against Track)...

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